Jerusalem - Old City Walls
Built between 1537 - 1541, by Ottoman Sultan, Suleiman the Magnificent (1520 - 1566).
Situated on the east side of the old city walls and built by Suleiman the Magnificent.
Sha'ar Harachamim - Gates of Mercy, Golden Gate, שער הרחמים
Situated on the eastern side of the city walls. Built either by the Byzantines during Justinian's rule (527 to 565 CE) or during the Ymmayad Period (661-750), using Byzantine workers.
The gate is made up of two blocked archways, the southern arch is know as Sha'ar Harachmim, Gates of Mercy, שער הרחמים ת the northern arch is known as Shaa'ar Hatshuvah, שער תשובה (Gates of Repentance). The Arabs adopted the name Gates of Mercy, which translates as Bab Al-Rahma. Whilst Christians refer to them as the Golden or the Beautiful gate.
Many reasons have been forwarded, as to why these gates, which lead to the Temple Mount and Temple entrance, are blocked. Some theorists believe that the Fatimids blocked them for security reasons. Others believe that the opponents of Judaism blocked the gates to prevent the realization of the Judaic belief, that the Jewish Messiah will enter the Temple Mount through these gates. The placement of a Muslim cemetery in front of the gates would reinforce the later theory, as a Cohen, (priest) cannot walk through a cemetery. However according to Jewish belief the Messiah comes from the house of David, and is not a Cohen (priest). In addition the ruling that a Cohen cannot walk through a cemetery, applies only to a Jewish cemetery.
Dung Gate (Sha'ar Ha'ashpot, Gate of Silwan) שער האשפות
Situated on the south-east side of the city walls and built by Suleiman the Magnificent between 1537 to 1541.
Two theories have been forwarded as to why this gate is called Dung Gate. The first suggests that it was the place where garbage was deposited after the Second Temple destruction in 70 CE.
The name, Gate of Silwan, derives its name from the village of Silwan, which can be seen on the eastern side of the Kidron Valley.
Tanner's Gate Sha’ar HaBurskai שער הבורסקאים
A minor gate situated just west of Dung Gate, on the southern wall. So named, as it it served as an entrance gate to the local tanneries, existent during the Crusader Period, (199 - 1291).
Zion Gate - שער ציון - Bab an-Nabe Dawud
Facing Mount Zion and Hebron, which is to the south of Jerusalem. Situated on the southern side of the city walls, it sits on the apex of Mount Zion, so that half of Mount Zion is within the city walls and remaining half outside the city walls. Built by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent between 1537 and 1541. This gate serves as an entrance point to both the Jewish and Armenian Quarters.
Flower Gate Herod's Gate - Sha'ar HaPrachim - Sheep's Gate, Bab - Al - Sahira, Jeremiah's Den Gate - שער הפרחים
The Flower gate is situated on the northeastern side of the city walls. The gate takes it name from the floral motifs on gate's facade.
Damascus Gate known as Shechem Gate / Nablus Gate / Bab-Al-Amud שער שכם
The Madaba Map
The Madaba map is a Byzantine Period (824-640), mosaic floor found in Jordan at St. George Church in Madaba - (discovered in 1884).
see link to old photographs of the Gates of Jerusalem;